2-Indian Constituent Assembly and Constitution making

Indian Constituent Assembly and Constitution making

  • The first demand for constitution making was made by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1895 through “Swaraj Bill”.
  • The Home Rule League movement started in 1916. In which domestic rule was demanded from the British.
  • In 1922, Gandhi ji made a strong demand for the formation of the Constituent Assembly and the constitution and said that whenever India would be free, the Indian constitution would be made according to the wishes of the Indian people.
  • The Nehru Report was prepared in August 1928. Which was presided over by Pt. Motilal Nehru. It was built in Bombay.
  • Under this, the first written constitution of British India was made. In which fundamental rights, rights of minorities and provisions of All India Union and Dominion State were kept.
  • The Muslim League and the princes of the princely states strongly opposed it.
  • In 1929, the Lahore conference of the Congress was held under the chairmanship of Jawaharlal Nehru. In which complete independence was demanded.
  • In 1936, the Faizalpur conference of the Congress was organized. In which the Constituent Assembly was elected for the first time from the platform of Congress to frame the constitution.
  • The Cripps Mission was sent to India in March 1942 following the circumstances arising out of World War II. which belonged to a member. It pledged to accept the demand for responsible government in India after the war. But here also the concept of ‘Dominion State’ was kept.
  • Which was rejected by the Congress League and Gandhiji. And Gandhiji termed this mission as ‘post dated cheque’.
  • That is, Britain is such a bankrupt bank that can drown anytime in the future.
  • In view of the disorganization of governance in India, the then Viceroy Lord Wavell called an all-party meeting in Shimla in June 1945, which could not reach any logical conclusion. This conference is known as ‘Shimla Conference’ or Wavel Plan.
  • Cabinet Mission was sent to India in March 1946. Which was presided over by ‘Sir Pathick Lawrence’ and two other members Sir Stafford Crims and A. V. Alexander.
  • An attempt was made by this commission to determine the correct governance system at that time. On the basis of its recommendations, the Constituent Assembly was formed, which is as follows-

The number of members in the Constituent Assembly was fixed at 389.

  • 292 members from British India
  • From Chief Commissionerate – 4 members
  • 93 members were appointed from the princely states.

The members were elected from British India and Chief Commissioner Territories.

One member will be elected for every 10 lakh population.

Members are divided into 3 parts-

  • General (2) Muslim (3) Sikh (Punjab)
  • The demand for a separate Pakistan was rejected.
  • On the basis of the recommendations of this commission, elections were held in July 1946. In which Congress got 208 seats and Muslim League got 73 and others got 15 seats.

In the four main commissionerate areas

  • Delhi
  • Coorg (Karnataka)
  • Ajmer-Merwara
  • British Balochistan (Pakistan)- On its basis, an interim government was formed in 1946. In which it started functioning from 2 September 1946, in which the Muslim League did not participate.
  • The then Viceroy Lord Wavell was the head of this government. And the Vice President was Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • This government kept the number of members at 14 including Nehru.
  • This government was reconstituted on 26 October 1946. Lean added 5 rep to this.
  • Mountbatten became the Viceroy of India in March 1947. He presented a plan on 3 June 1947, which came to be known as the Partition/Mount Batten/June Plan. It was passed by the King of Britain on 18 July 1947.

This plan was implemented in the Indian Independence Act of 15 August 1947. It had the following provisions-

India was divided into 2 Dominion states-

(1) India (2) Pakistan

  • All the rights of the British Emperor were taken away from India.
  • East Bengal, West Bengal, Sindh, North-West Frontier Province and the Silhar district of Assam were given to Pakistan.
  • To rule India till the constitution is completed. How was it governed by the Government of India Act of 1935?
  • The Constituent Assembly got the status of sovereign.
  • Mountbatten remained the Viceroy of India. But become Governor General in Pakistan or Viceroy Mohammad Ali Jinnah.
  • After partition, the Constituent Assembly was reconstituted.
  • The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly took place on 9 December 1946. In which Sachchidanand Sinha was made the temporary president.
  • The second meeting took place on 11 December 1946. In which Dr. Rajendra Prasad was made the permanent president. The meeting was attended by Vice President HC Mukherjee and Constitutional Advisor B.K. N Rao was
  • The third meeting was called on 13 December 1946, in which the ‘Objective Resolution’ was presented by Nehru. Which was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 January 1947. On what basis was the Preamble of the Indian Constitution made?

Some committees were formed by the Constituent Assembly for constitution making, which were as follows

Board-  Chairman

1 Union Power Committee -Jawaharlal Nehru

2 Constitution Committee- Jawaharlal Nehru

3 Committee for  States -Jawaharlal Nehru

4 Advisory Committee from states and princely states- Sardar Patel

5 Fundamental Rights and Minority Committee – Sardar Patel

6 Provincial Constitution Committee Sardar Patel

7 Sub-Committee on Fundamental Rights-  J.B. kriplani

8 Flag Committee Chairman – J.B. kriplani

9 Rules of Procedure Committee (Steering) – Rajendra Prasad

10 Committee on Supreme Court- SH Vardhacharya

11 Committee to examine the draft of the constitution – Alladi Krishna Swami Aryar

12 Drafting Committee / Drafting / Drafting Committee- Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar

13 Constitutional Review Commission – M N Batchelya

The following were the 7 members of the Drafting Committee

  • Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
  • Alladi Krishna Swami Iyengar
  • N. Gopal Swami Iyengar
  • Kanhaiyalal Manikyalal Mushi
  • N. Madhavraj – This B. Ale. Came in place of Mittal.
  • T. T. Krishnamachari – He came in place of D. P. Khaitan.
  • Mohammad Sadullah
  • The Drafting Committee was constituted on 29 August 1947.
  • 207 members participated in the first session of the Constituent Assembly.
  • A total of 15 women participated in the Constituent Assembly. And 8 women signed the constitution.
  • After the partition of India on August 15, 1947, the number of members in the Constituent Assembly decreased to 324.
  • In October 1947, the number of members in the Constituent Assembly decreased to 299.
  • A total of 3 readings of the constitution were completed by the Constituent Assembly.
  • Last reading from 17 November 1949 to 26 November 1949.
  • Total meetings were 105 and 12 sessions were held. Four sessions were held before the partition of India.
  • Tributes were paid to Mahatma Gandhi in the 7th session.
  • In May 1949, India made sure to join the Commonwealth of Nations.
  • Indian constitution has been made on the basis of consent and accommodation.

The Constituent Assembly of India functioned in two ways.

(1) When the work of making the constitution was done, it was presided over by Rajendra Prasad and

(2) When the Constituent Assembly functions as a legislature, it is presided over by Ganesh Vasudev Mavalkar.

  • The last meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on 24 November 1949 for constitution making. On this day 284 people signed the constitution.
  • The first person to sign was Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • The first person to sign was Balwant Singh Mehta from Rajasthan. And 12 members were sent from Rajasthan.
  • 11 members are from princely states and 1 chief commissioner is from Ajmer-Merwara region.
  • On November 26, 1949, 15 articles of the constitution were implemented in which citizenship, interim parliament and transitional provisions were implemented.
  • The entire constitution was implemented on 26 January 1950.
  • But before implementation, the last meeting was called on 24 January 1950. In which Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected the President of India and the National Song and National Anthem were adopted.
  • National Anthem: – Rabindranath Tagore – was sung for the first time in the Kolkata session of 1911. Duration – approx 52 seconds. Composition – in the original Bengali language
  • National Song – Bankim Chand Chatterjee
  • It is originally in Sanskrit language and was taken from Anand Math.

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